Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Nature of Operations
Our business is comprised of two business lines: (1) Drilling Services and (2) Rental Tools Services. We report our Drilling Services business as two reportable segments: (1) U.S. (Lower 48) Drilling and (2) International & Alaska Drilling. We report our Rental Tools Services business as two reportable segments: (1) U.S. Rental Tools and (2) International Rental Tools.
In our Drilling Services business, we drill oil, natural gas and geothermal wells for customers in both the U.S. and international markets. We provide this service with both Company-owned rigs and customer-owned rigs. We refer to the provision of drilling services with customer-owned rigs as our operations and management (“O&M”) service in which operators own their own drilling rigs but choose Parker Drilling to operate and manage the rigs for them. The nature and scope of activities involved in drilling an oil and natural gas well is similar whether it is drilled with a Company-owned rig (as part of a traditional drilling contract) or a customer-owned rig (as part of an O&M contract). In addition, we provide project-related services, such as engineering, procurement, project management and commissioning of customer-owned drilling rig projects. We have extensive experience and expertise in drilling geologically challenging wells and in managing the logistical and technological challenges of operating in remote, harsh and ecologically sensitive areas.
    Our U.S. (Lower 48) Drilling segment provides drilling services with our Gulf of Mexico (“GOM”) barge drilling rig fleet, and markets our U.S. (Lower 48)-based O&M services. Our GOM barge drilling fleet operates barge rigs that drill for oil and natural gas in shallow waters in and along the inland waterways and coasts of Louisiana, Alabama and Texas. The majority of these wells are drilled in shallow water depths ranging from 6 to 12 feet. Our rigs are suitable for a variety of drilling programs, from inland coastal waters requiring shallow draft barges, to open water drilling on both state and federal water projects requiring more robust capabilities. The barge drilling industry in the GOM is characterized by cyclical activity where utilization and dayrates are typically driven by oil and natural gas prices and our customers’ access to project financing. Contract terms typically consist of well-to-well or multi-well programs, most commonly ranging from 20 to 180 days.
Our International & Alaska Drilling segment provides drilling services, using both Company-owned rigs and O&M contracts, and project-related services. The drilling markets in which this segment operates have one or more of the following characteristics:
customers typically are major, independent, or national oil and natural gas companies or integrated service providers;
drilling programs in remote locations with little infrastructure, requiring a large inventory of spare parts and other ancillary equipment and self-supported service capabilities;
complex wells and/or harsh environments (such as high pressures, deep depths, hazardous or geologically challenging conditions and sensitive environments) requiring specialized equipment and considerable experience to drill; and
O&M contracts that generally cover periods of one year or more.
During the year ended December 31, 2017, we had rigs operating on Sakhalin Island, Russia and in Alaska, Kazakhstan, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and Guatemala. In addition, we had O&M and ongoing project-related services for customer-owned rigs in Kuwait, Canada and on Sakhalin Island, Russia.    
In our Rental Tools Services business, we provide premium rental equipment and services to exploration & production (“E&P”) companies, drilling contractors and service companies on land and offshore in the U.S. and select international markets. Tools we provide include standard and heavy-weight drill pipe, all of which are available with standard or high-torque connections, tubing, drill collars, pressure control equipment, including blowout preventers and more. We also provide well construction services, which include tubular running services and downhole tool rentals, well intervention services, which include whipstock, fishing and related services, and inspection and machine shop support. Rental tools are used during drilling and/or workover programs and are requested by the customer as needed, requiring us to keep a broad inventory of rental tools in stock. Rental tools are usually rented on a daily or monthly basis.
Our U.S. Rental Tools segment is headquartered in New Iberia, Louisiana. We maintain an inventory of rental tools for deepwater, drilling, completion, workover, and production applications at facilities in Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, North Dakota and West Virginia. Our largest single market for rental tools is U.S. land drilling, a cyclical market driven primarily by oil and natural gas prices and our customers’ access to project financing. A portion of our U.S. rental tools business is supplying tubular goods and other equipment to offshore GOM customers.
Our International Rental Tools segment is headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. We maintain an inventory of rental tools and provide well construction, well intervention, and surface and tubular services to our customers in the Middle East, Latin America, United Kingdom, Europe, and Asia-Pacific regions.
We have operated in over 50 countries since beginning operations in 1934, making us among the most geographically experienced drilling contractors and rental tools providers in the world. We currently have operations in 19 countries. Parker has set numerous world records for deep and extended-reach drilling land rigs and is an industry leader in quality, health, safety and environmental practices.
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and subsidiaries in which we exercise control or have a controlling financial interest, including entities, if any, in which the Company is allocated a majority of the entity’s losses or returns, regardless of ownership percentage. If a subsidiary of Parker Drilling has a 50 percent interest in an entity but Parker Drilling’s interest in the subsidiary or the entity does not meet the consolidation criteria described above, then that interest is accounted for under the equity method.
Noncontrolling Interest
We apply accounting standards related to noncontrolling interests for ownership interests in our subsidiaries held by parties other than Parker Drilling. We report noncontrolling interest as equity on the consolidated balance sheets and report net income (loss) attributable to controlling interest and to noncontrolling interest separately on the consolidated statements of operations.
Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period amounts to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications did not materially affect our consolidated financial results.
Revenue Recognition
Drilling revenues and expenses, comprised of daywork drilling contracts, call-outs against master service agreements and engineering and related project service contracts, are recognized as services are performed and collection is reasonably assured. For certain contracts, we receive payments contractually designated for the mobilization of rigs and other drilling equipment. Mobilization payments received, and direct costs incurred for the mobilization, are deferred and recognized over the primary term of the related drilling contract; however, costs incurred to relocate rigs and other drilling equipment to areas in which a contract has not been secured are expensed as incurred. For contracts that are terminated prior to the specified term, early termination payments received by us are recognized as revenues when all contractual requirements are met. Revenues from rental activities are recognized ratably over the rental term, which is generally less than six months. Our project-related services contracts include engineering, consulting, and project management scopes of work and revenue is typically recognized on a time and materials basis.
Reimbursable Revenues
The Company recognizes reimbursements received for out-of-pocket expenses incurred as revenues and accounts for out-of-pocket expenses as direct operating costs. Such amounts totaled $57.8 million, $69.3 million, and $87.8 million during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively. Additionally, the Company typically receives a nominal handling fee, which is recognized as earned in revenues in our consolidated statement of operations.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting policies generally accepted in the United States (U.S. GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect our reported amounts of assets and liabilities, our disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and our revenues and expenses during the periods reported. Estimates are typically used when accounting for certain significant items such as legal or contractual liability accruals, mobilization and deferred mobilization, self-insured medical/dental plans, income taxes and valuation allowance, and other items requiring the use of estimates. Estimates are based on a number of variables which may include third party valuations, historical experience, where applicable, and assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved with estimates, actual results may differ from management estimates.
Purchase Price Allocation
We allocate the purchase price of an acquired business to its identifiable assets and liabilities in accordance with the acquisition method based on estimated fair values at the transaction date. Transaction and integration costs associated with an acquisition are expensed as incurred. The excess of the purchase price over the amount allocated to the assets and liabilities, if any, is recorded as goodwill. We use all available information to estimate fair values, including quoted market prices, the carrying value of acquired assets, and widely accepted valuation techniques such as discounted cash flows. We typically engage third-party appraisal firms to assist in fair value determination of inventories, identifiable intangible assets, and any other significant assets or liabilities. Judgments made in determining the estimated fair value assigned to each class of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as well as asset lives, can materially impact our results of operations.
We perform our annual goodwill impairment review during the fourth quarter, as of October 1, and more frequently if negative conditions or other triggering events arise. The quantitative impairment test we perform for goodwill utilizes certain assumptions, including forecasted revenues and costs assumptions.
Intangible Assets
Our intangible assets are related to trade names, customer relationships, and developed technology, which were acquired through acquisition and are classified as definite lived intangibles, that are generally amortized over a weighted average period of approximately three to six years. We assess the recoverability of the unamortized balance of our intangible assets when indicators of impairment are present based on expected future profitability and undiscounted expected cash flows and their contribution to our overall operations. Should the review indicate that the carrying value is not fully recoverable, the excess of the carrying value over the fair value of the intangible assets would be recognized as an impairment loss.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
For purposes of the consolidated balance sheets and the consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers cash equivalents to be highly liquid debt instruments that have a remaining maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Bad Debt
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoice amount and typically do not bear interest. The allowance for bad debt is estimated for losses that may occur resulting from disputed amounts and the inability of our customers to pay amounts owed. We estimate the allowance based on historical write-off experience and information about specific customers. We review individually, for collectability, all balances over 90 days past due as well as balances due from any customer with respect to which we have information leading us to believe that a risk exists for potential collection.
Account balances are charged off against the allowance when we believe it is probable the receivable will not be recovered.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment is carried at cost. Maintenance and most repair costs are expensed as incurred. The cost of upgrades and replacements is capitalized. The Company capitalizes software developed or obtained for internal use. Accordingly, the cost of third-party software, as well as the cost of third-party and internal personnel that are directly involved in application development activities, are capitalized during the application development phase of new software systems projects. Costs during the preliminary project stage and post-implementation stage of new software systems projects, including data conversion and training costs, are expensed as incurred. We account for depreciation of property, plant and equipment on the straight line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets after provision for salvage value. Depreciation, for tax purposes, utilizes several methods of accelerated depreciation. Depreciable lives for different categories of property, plant and equipment are as follows:
Land drilling equipment
3 to 20 years
Barge drilling equipment
3 to 20 years
Drill pipe, rental tools and other
4 to 15 years
Buildings and improvements
5 to 30 years

Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the term of the lease.
We evaluate the carrying amounts of long-lived assets for potential impairment when events occur or circumstances change that indicate the carrying values of such assets may not be recoverable. We evaluate recoverability by determining the undiscounted estimated future net cash flows for the respective asset groups identified. If the sum of the estimated undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying value of the asset group, we measure the impairment as the amount by which the assets’ carrying value exceeds the fair value of such assets. Management considers a number of factors such as estimated future cash flows from the assets, appraisals and current market value analysis in determining fair value. Assets are written down to fair value if the final estimate of current fair value is below the net carrying value. The assumptions used in the impairment evaluation are inherently uncertain and require management judgment.    
Capitalized Interest
Interest from external borrowings is capitalized on major projects until the assets are ready for their intended use. Capitalized interest is added to the cost of the underlying asset and is amortized over the useful lives of the assets in the same manner as the underlying assets. Capitalized interest costs reduce net interest expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
Assets Held for Sale
We classify an asset as held for sale when the facts and circumstances meet the criteria for such classification, including the following: (a) we have committed to a plan to sell the asset, (b) the asset is available for immediate sale, (c) we have initiated actions to complete the sale, including locating a buyer, (d) the sale is expected to be completed within one year, (e) the asset is being actively marketed at a price that is reasonable relative to its fair value, and (f) the plan to sell is unlikely to be subject to significant changes or termination.
Rig Materials and Supplies
Because our international drilling generally occurs in remote locations, making timely outside delivery of spare parts uncertain, a complement of parts and supplies is maintained either at the drilling site or in warehouses close to the operation. During periods of high rig utilization, these parts are generally consumed and replenished within a one-year period. During a period of lower rig utilization in a particular location, the parts, like the related idle rigs, are generally not transferred to other international locations until new contracts are obtained because of the significant transportation costs that would result from such transfers. We classify those parts which are not expected to be utilized in the following year as long-term assets. Additionally, our international rental tools business holds machine shop consumables and steel stock for manufacture in our machine shops and inspection and repair shops, which are classified as current assets. Rig materials and supplies are valued at the lower of cost or market value.
Deferred Costs
We defer costs related to rig mobilization and amortize such costs over the primary term of the related contract. The costs to be amortized within twelve months are classified as current.
Debt Issuance Costs
We typically defer costs associated with issuance of indebtedness, and amortize those costs over the term of the related debt using the effective interest method.
Income Taxes
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method and have been provided for based upon tax laws and rates in effect in the countries in which operations are conducted and income or losses are generated. There is little or no expected relationship between the provision for or benefit from income taxes and income or loss before income taxes as the countries in which we operate have taxation regimes that vary not only with respect to nominal rate, but also in terms of the availability of deductions, credits, and other benefits. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled and the effect of changes in tax rates is recognized in income in the period in which the change is enacted. Valuation allowances are established to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. In order to determine the amount of deferred tax assets or liabilities, as well as the valuation allowances, we must make estimates and assumptions regarding future taxable income, where rigs will be deployed and other matters. Changes in these estimates and assumptions, including changes in tax laws and other changes impacting our ability to recognize the underlying deferred tax assets, could require us to adjust the valuation allowances.
The Company recognizes the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not to be sustained. Recognized income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized and changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs.
Earnings (Loss) Per Share (EPS)
Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. The effects of dilutive securities, stock options, unvested restricted stock and convertible debt are included in the diluted EPS calculation, when applicable.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of trade receivables with a variety of national and international oil and natural gas companies. We generally do not require collateral on our trade receivables. We depend on a limited number of significant customers.
Fair Value Measurements
For purposes of recording fair value adjustments for certain financial and non-financial assets and liabilities, and determining fair value disclosures, we estimate fair value at a price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants in the principal market for the asset or liability. Our valuation technique requires inputs that we categorize using a three-level hierarchy, from highest to lowest level of observable inputs, as follows: (1) unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets (Level 1), (2) direct or indirect observable inputs, including quoted prices or other market data, for similar assets or liabilities in active markets or identical assets or liabilities in less active markets (Level 2) and (3) unobservable inputs that require significant judgment for which there is little or no market data (Level 3). When multiple input levels are required for a valuation, we categorize the entire fair value measurement according to the lowest level of input that is significant to the measurement even though we may have also utilized significant inputs that are more readily observable.
Foreign Currency
In our international rental tool business, for certain subsidiaries and branches outside the U.S., the local currency is the functional currency. The financial statements of these subsidiaries and branches are translated into U.S. dollars as follows: (i) assets and liabilities at month-end exchange rates; (ii) income, expenses and cash flows at monthly average exchange rates or exchange rates in effect on the date of the transaction; and (iii) stockholders’ equity at historical exchange rates. For those subsidiaries where the local currency is the functional currency, the resulting translation adjustment is recorded as a component of accumulated other elements of comprehensive income (loss) in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Stock-Based Compensation
Under our long term incentive plan, we are authorized to issue the following: stock options; stock appreciation rights; restricted stock awards; restricted stock units; performance-based awards; and other types of awards in cash or stock to key employees, consultants, and directors. We typically grant restricted stock units (“RSUs”), performance cash units (“PCUs”), performance-based phantom stock units and time-based phantom stock units.
Stock-based compensation expense is recognized, net of an estimated forfeiture rate, which is based on historical experience and adjusted, if necessary, in subsequent periods based on actual forfeitures. We recognize stock-based compensation expense in the same financial statement line item as cash compensation paid to the respective employees. Tax deduction benefits for awards in excess of recognized compensation costs are reported as an operating cash flow.
Legal and Investigation Matters
We accrue estimates of the probable and estimable costs for the resolution of certain legal and investigation matters. We do not accrue any amounts for other matters for which the liability is not probable and reasonably estimable. Generally, the estimate of probable costs related to these matters is developed in consultation with our legal advisors. The estimates take into consideration factors such as the complexity of the issues, litigation risks and settlement costs. If the actual settlement costs, final judgments, or fines, after appeals, differ from our estimates, our future financial results may be adversely affected.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The standard simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating the second step of the goodwill impairment test. This standard is effective for annual or interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. Effective January 1, 2017, we adopted ASU 2017-04 and it did not have a material impact on our consolidated statements of financial position, results of operations, cash flows, and on the disclosures contained in our notes to the consolidated financial statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other than Inventory. The ASU requires entities to recognize at the transaction date the income tax consequences of intercompany asset transfers other than inventory. The standard becomes effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, but only at the beginning of the annual period for which no financial statements have been issued or been made available for issuance. Effective January 1, 2017, we adopted ASU 2016-16 prospectively and it did not have a material impact on our consolidated statements of financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. The ASU is intended to reduce diversity in current practice regarding the manner in which certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the cash flow statement. The standard becomes effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. Effective January 1, 2017, we adopted ASU 2016-15 retrospectively and it did not have a material impact on our statement of cash flows.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718). The objective of this update is to simplify several aspects of accounting for share-based payment transactions, including income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. The standard became effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Effective January 1, 2017, we adopted ASU 2016-09. The adoption did not have a material impact on our consolidated statements of financial position, results of operations or cash flows. In accordance with the ASU requirements, we adopted certain aspects of the ASU as follows:
Accounting for excess tax benefits and certain tax deficiencies - The guidance requires all excess tax benefits, and certain tax deficiencies to be recorded through the income statement instead of additional paid in capital, where the activity was historically recorded. We adopted this change prospectively.  There is no cumulative effect of the adoption as we have no unrecognized excess tax benefits or minimum withholding requirements that impact the income statement and, accordingly, prior periods have not been adjusted.
Cash flow presentation of excess tax benefits and certain tax deficiencies - We adopted this change retrospectively. Tax related cash flows from share based payments are to be presented as operating activities in the statement of cash flows. Consequently, activity for the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, recorded through equity, has been reclassified from financing activities to operating activities in the statement of cash flows. The impact of such reclassification was nominal for 2016. For the year ended December 31, 2015, we have reclassified $1.0 million from operating activities to financing activities.
Accounting for forfeitures - We have made an entity-wide accounting policy election to continue to estimate forfeitures and adjust the estimate when it is likely to change. This election does not change our current policy and, accordingly, there is no impact on our consolidated statements of financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Cash paid to a tax authority when shares are withheld to satisfy the employer’s statutory income tax withholding obligation - We adopted this change retrospectively. The activity is now required to be presented as financing activities in the statement of cash flows. For the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, we have reclassified $1.2 million and $1.0 million, respectively, from operating activities to financing activities.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). This accounting standards update requires (a) an entity to separate the lease components from the non-lease components in a contract where the lease component will be accounted for under ASU 2016-02 and the non-lease component will be accounted for under ASU 2014-09, (b) recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities by lessees and derecognition of the leased asset and recognition of a net investment in the lease by the lessor and (c) additional disclosure requirements for both lessees and lessors. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, although early adoption is permitted. Upon adoption, a retrospective approach is required for leases that exist, or are entered into, after the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented. Under the updated accounting standard, we have determined that our drilling contracts may contain a lease component; therefore, our adoption of the standard could require that we separately recognize revenues associated with the lease and service components. We will adopt ASU 2016-02 on January 1, 2019, and we expect to apply the modified retrospective approach. Our adoption, and the ultimate effect on our consolidated financial statements, will be based on an evaluation of the contract-specific facts and circumstances, and such effect could introduce variability to the timing of our revenue recognition relative to current accounting standards. We are evaluating the requirements to determine the effect such requirements may have on our consolidated statements of financial position, results of operations, cash flows and on the disclosures contained in our notes to the consolidated financial statements upon the adoption of ASU 2016-02. Depending on the results of the evaluation our ultimate conclusions may vary.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) which is effective for annual reporting periods that begin after December 15, 2017. This ASU supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in ASC 605 - Revenue Recognition and most industry-specific guidance throughout the Codification and provides a five step analysis for transactions to determine how and when revenue is recognized. The standard requires that an entity recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services and should be applied retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying the ASU recognized at the date of initial application. Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2014-09 using the modified retrospective approach, in which we will record the cumulative effect of applying the new standard to all outstanding contracts as of January 1, 2018, as an adjustment to opening retained earnings. In applying the new standard, we plan to account for the integrated services provided within our drilling, O&M and rentals contracts as a single performance obligation composed of a series of distinct time increments, which will be satisfied over time. We will determine the total transaction price for each individual contract by estimating both fixed and variable consideration expected to be earned over the term of the contract. Consideration that does not relate to a distinct good or service, such as mobilization and contract preparation revenue, will be allocated across the single performance obligation and recognized ratably over the term of the contract. All other components of consideration within a contract, including the dayrate revenue, will continue to be recognized in the period when the services are performed. We do not anticipate the adoption of the new standard to have a material impact on our consolidated statements of financial position, results of operations and cash flows. Expanded revenue disclosures are expected in our notes to the consolidated financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40). The objective of this update is to provide guidance about management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern and provide footnote disclosures. The amendments in this update become effective for public companies for the annual period after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter. Early application is permitted. Effective January 1, 2017, we adopted ASU 2014-15 prospectively and it did not have a material impact on our consolidated statements of financial position, results of operations, cash flows, and on the disclosures contained in our notes to the consolidated financial statements.